If you feel your employer ended your employment unfairly, either because of the reason why you were dismissed, or the process they used, then you may have suffered unfair dismissal and might be able to complain to an Employment Tribunal.
What is unfair dismissal
There are several ways you could suffer unfair dismissal:
- your employer does not have a fair reason for dismissing you (eg if there was nothing wrong with your job performance)
- your employer did not follow the correct process when dismissing you (eg if the have not followed their company dismissal processes)
- you were dismissed for an automatically unfair reason (eg because you wanted to take maternity leave)
Automatic unfair dismissal
There are some reasons for dismissal that are automatically unfair dismissal. If you are dismissed for any of these reasons then you should be able to make a claim to an Employment Tribunal for unfair dismissal.
If your employer dismisses you for exercising or trying to exercise one of your statutory (legal) employment law rights you will have been automatically unfairly dismissed.
An employees statutory employment law rights include a right to:
- a written statement of employment particulars
- an itemised pay statement
- a minimum notice period
- maternity, paternity or adoption leave
- time off for antenatal care
- parental leave
- time off for dependants
- the right to request flexible working arrangements
- not to be discriminated against because of your gender, race, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation or age
- guaranteed pay when work is not available for you
- time off for public duties (eg jury service)
- protection against unlawful deductions from wages
- remuneration during suspension on medical grounds
- refusing to do shop or betting work on a Sunday
- making a public interest disclosure or ‘blowing the whistle’
Dismissal before, during or after business transfers (TUPE)
If the business you work for is being transferred to another company or taken over, you may be protected under the ‘Transfer of Undertakings’ (TUPE) employment law protections.
If you are protected and you are dismissed by either your old or new employer because of the transfer, or a reason connected with it, the dismissal will be automatically unfair dismissal. The only exception to this is if your employer can show the dismissal was for an economic, technical or organisational reason.
Unfair selection for redundancy
Redundancy is a form of dismissal. If the reason you are selected for redundancy is unfair then you will have suffered unfair dismissal.
Dismissal on the grounds of pregnancy or maternity rights and employment law
If you are pregnant, you cannot be fairly dismissed because:
- of any reason connected with your pregnancy
- you have given birth and you are dismissed during your ordinary or additional maternity leave
- you have taken, or want to take, ordinary or additional maternity leave
- of a health and safety issue that could mean you would be, or have been, suspended from work
- of keeping in touch (or not keeping in touch) with your employer during your maternity leave
It would also be unfair dismissal if your employer dismisses you on grounds that you returned back to work late from maternity leave because your employer:
- didn’t properly tell you when your leave ended
- gave you less that 28 days’ notice of the end date of your maternity leave and it was not practical for you to return to work
Dismissal in connection with disciplinary or grievance hearings
You have the right to be accompanied by a trade union representative or colleague to a disciplinary or grievance meeting. You can also reasonably postpone the hearing if your companion cannot make it. If you are dismissed for trying to exercise these rights, or for accompanying a colleague, then it is automatically unfair dismissal.
This applies to both employees and to other workers (eg. agency workers).
Dismissal relating to your working time
You normally have the right to paid leave, rest breaks, as well as limiting the average hours per week your employer can ask you to work. You cannot be fairly dismissed for refusing to:
- break your working time rights – even if your employer tells you to work
- give up one of your working time rights
- sign a workforce agreement that impacts your working time rights
Dismissal relating to part-time or fixed-term work
As a part-time or fixed-term worker you should not to be treated less favourably than a full-time or permanent employee (eg. you should be offered the same or equivalent employment law rights and benefits). You cannot be dismissed fairly because:
- you are part time
- you made a complaint about being treated less favourably than another employee
- you gave evidence or were involved in a complaint raised by another employee
- your employer believed you intended to do any of these things
Dismissal relating to trade union reasons
If you are dismissed for a reason around trade union membership, recognition or subscription funds it will be automatically unfair dismissal. This includes being dismissed for:
- deciding to join, not to join or take part in the activities of a trade union or independent trade union, or for using its services
- refusing to give up your rights under a collective agreement
- objecting to or refusing to make a payment for union membership
- showing your support or non-support of any aspect of trade union recognition in the workplace
- asking your employer to stop paying a contribution of your trade union subscription into the trade union’s political fund
- objecting to a deduction of unauthorised or excessive union subscriptions from your pay
Dismissal during an industrial dispute
It is automatically unfair dismissal if your employer dismisses you for taking part in legal industrial action that lasts 12 weeks or less. If the industrial action lasts longer than 12 weeks because your employer has not taken reasonable steps to resolve the dispute then you are protected from unfair dismissal.
If you take part in unlawful industrial action then your employer could fairly dismiss you, so long as they treat you the same as the other employees who also took part in the unlawful industrial action.
Dismissal relating to the National Minimum Wage (NMW)
You cannot be fairly dismissed for:
- qualifying, or about to qualify, to be paid the NMW
- insisting on your right to be paid at least the NMW
- reporting your employer for not paying the NMW
Dismissal relating to activities as an occupational pension scheme trustee
If you are an employee occupational pension fund trustee you have the right to reasonable paid time off for your duties. You cannot be fairly dismissed for carrying out or trying to carry out your duties.
Dismissal for taking action on health and safety grounds
It will be unfair dismissal if you are dismissed for:
- carrying out or trying to carry out any activities in your role as health and safety representative (rep) to reduce risks to health and safety
- performing or trying to perform your duties an official or employer-acknowledged health and safety rep or committee member
- bringing to your employer’s attention a concern about health or safety in the workplace
- leaving, proposing to leave or refusing to return to the workplace (or any dangerous part of it) if there is a serious, imminent danger that you cannot prevent
- taking or trying to take the appropriate steps to protect yourself or other people from a serious and imminent danger
Dismissal relating to activities as an employee representative
You cannot be fairly dismissed for being an employee representative (or thinking about becoming an employee representative) for consultations with your employer about:
- business transfers
You cannot be fairly dismissed for being or carrying out your duties as a:
- European Works Council representative
- member of a special negotiating body
- information and consultation representative
Dismissal relating to tax credits
It will be unfair dismissal if you are dismissed because:
- you are entitled, or will or may be entitled, to Working Tax Credits
- you tried to enforce your right to receive Working Tax Credits
- your employer was prosecuted or fined as a result of you trying to enforce your right